Battery Cells and Stacks

Consumer electronics, automotive, stationary and industrial applications require highly efficient energy storage solutions. Battery cell manufacturers have to ensure excellent quality while addressing high troughput specifications and finally maximizing the uptime of the equipment. Coating processes have to monitored, especially for manufacturing of:

  • Current collectors
  • Electrodes
  • Anodes
  • Cathodes
  • Separators
  • Electrolytes


  • Sheet resistance
  • Conductivity
  • Functionalization
  • Thickness
  • Homogeneity
  • Area weight
  • Drying status
  • Areal capacity
  • Porosity


  • Deposition process control
  • Drying process control
  • Calandering process control
  • Welding process control
  • Quality control


  • Metal foil (Cu, Al)
  • Plastic foil (BOPP)
  • Wafer
  • Mesh
  • Non-woven
  • Ceramics


  • S2S
  • R2R
  • Wafer level


  • In-situ and ex-situ
  • In-vacuo and ex-vacuo
  • Inline and offline
  • Wet and dry

Cathode Materials

  • NMC (NCM) – Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide (LiNiCoMnO2)
  • LFP – Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4/C)
  • NCA – Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2)
  • LMO – Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4)
  • LNMO – Lithium Nickel Manganese Spinel (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4)
  • LCO – Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2)

Anode Materials

  • Graphite
  • Amorphous carbon
  • Activated carbon
  • Carbon black
  • Conductive additives
  • Graphene

Use Case Electrodes

Drying Status

Battery Electrode Drying status

Areal Capacity

Battery Electrode Areal Capacity

Drying status over time as well as areal capacities of electrode ink or pastes deposited on substrates were derived by complex eddy current impedance.

For characterization of deposition, drying, calandering and welding processes in battery cell and module manufacturing, either for development or high-volume manufacturing, SURAGUS refers to the following solutions:


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