Crystalline Photovoltaic

Different high effiency wafer based cell technologies are available in high volume manufacturing. Manufacturing costs are crucial for cells and modules. For achieving highest efficiency at lowest manfacturing cost, the following deposition processes have to be monitored:

  • Metal grid
  • Electrodes
  • Buffer or seed layer
  • Tunnel oxide
  • Passivation layer


  • Sheet resistance
  • Conductivity
  • Thickness
  • Homogeneity
  • Defectoscopy


  • Incoming inspection
  • Wafer testing
  • Deposition process control
  • Quality control
  • Final inspection


  • n-type Si
  • p-type Si


  • Inline
  • Carrier


  • In-vacuo and ex-vacuo
  • In-situ and ex-situ
  • Inline and offline


  • HJT/ HIT
  • TopCon
  • IBC
  • Tandem
  • Perovskite-HJT-Tandem

Use Case Wafer Incoming Inspection

Crystalline PV Incoming Inspection

Wafer incoming inspection for poly or mono Si wafer is dedicated to sheet resistance characterization by means of high frequency eddy current technology. Measurement tasks could be realized by individual sheet resitastance characteriztation or combined with thickness measurement.

Use Case Passivation

Crystalline PV Passivation

Passivation of wafer for minimizing recombination effects can be monitored by inductive methodes such as hogh frequency eddy current technology.

For incoming inspection and characterization of deposition processes in crystalline photovoltaics SURAGUS refers to the following products:


For product requests contact us by using the

For a prompt and informative response, please describe your measurement task (material, sample dimensions, expected measurement range) and provide your phone number.

By sending this form, I permit SURAGUS GmbH to process my data for contacting me. For more details see our Imprint & Privacy Policy