Wafer and Panel Level Packaging

Due to cost pressure in the semiconductor industry wafer or panel level packaging is a method of packaging an integreted circuit (IC) directly on the wafer or panel. It has large potential for further miniaturization, both in volume and in thickness. For high-troughput requirements high frequency eddy current technology characterizes sheet resistance, conductivity, thickness and homogeneity of metal layers.


  • Sheet resistance
  • Conductivity
  • Thickness
  • Homogeneity

Substrate types

  • Wafer
  • Glass
  • Plastics (molded compounds)

Common substrate sizes

  • Wafer level
    • 2 inch to 8 inch
  • Panel level
    • 410 mm x 515 mm
    • 510 mm x 515 mm
    • 500 mm x 500 mm
    • 600 mm x 600 mm
    • 650 mm x 650 mm

Typical layers

  • Ti
  • Cu


  • Plating
  • Sputtering

Further resources

  • SEMI MF673 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Semiconductor Wafers or Sheet Resistance of Semiconductor Films with a Noncontact Eddy-Current Gauge
  • SEMI M59 — Terminology for Silicon Technology
  • SEMI MF81 — Test Method for Measuring Radial Resistivity Variation on Silicon Wafers
  • SEMI MF84 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers with an In-Line Four-Point Probe
  • SEMI MF374 — Test Method for Sheet Resistance of Silicon Epitaxial, Diffused, Polysilicon, and Ion-Implanted Layers Using an In-Line Four-Point Probe with the Single-Configuration Procedure
  • SEMI MF1527 — Guide for Application of Certified Reference Materials and Reference Wafers for Calibration and Control of Instruments for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon


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